Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Types of Sentences

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence contains a subject and a main verb; it contains one independent clause.

* I like coffee

This is a simple sentence with one subject and one verb forming an independent clause. Naturally, a simple sentence can include other things:

* I like a couple of cups of coffee first thing in the morning.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses, often joined by a co-ordinator.

* I like coffee, but my partner prefers tea.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

* Because I have trouble waking up, I have coffee first thing in the morning. (The dependent clause is in bold and the independent clause is italicized)

The dependent clause cannot exist on its own; it requires the independent clause to make sense.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

* Some people say that the best coffee comes from Brazil, but others say that the best coffee comes from the Blue Mountains in Jamaica.

Adjectives that look like adverbs

Here is a list of adjectives  that end in -ly and sometimes get mistaken for adverbs:

    * Beastly
    * Brotherly
    * Comely
    * Costly
    * Cowardly
    * Daily (Can also be an adverb)
    * Deadly
    * Elderly
    * Fatherly
    * Fortnightly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Friendly
    * Gentlemanly
    * Gentlewomanly
    * Ghastly
    * Ghostly
    * Godly
    * Goodly
    * Holy
    * Homely
    * Humanly
    * Kingly
    * Leisurely
    * Likely
    * Lively
    * Lonely
    * Lovely
    * Lowly
    * Maidenly
    * Manly
    * Masterly
    * Matronly
    * Miserly
    * Monthly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Motherly
    * Nightly
    * Painterly
    * Priestly
    * Princely
    * Saintly
    * Scholarly
    * Shapely
    * Silly
    * Sisterly
    * Timely
    * Ugly
    * Ungainly
    * Unruly
    * Unsightly
    * Unseemly
    * Unworldly
    * Weekly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Womanly
    * Worldly
    * Yearly (Can also be an adverb)

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Academic Writing From Paragraph To Essay

Academic Writing from Paragraph to Essay course takes students from paragraph structuring to essay writing through a process approach. It teaches learners how to order and link paragraphs into cohesive and coherent essays, and to create the various paragraph types that are used in writing assignments. Academic Writing includes work on how to generate ideas, organize material, draft, review and revise written work.
academic writing from paragraph to essay
There are additional sample and reference materials at the back of the book, including models of essay development and a punctuation guide.

Academic Vocabulary In Use

Academic Vocabulary in Use is a practice and reference Book for anyone using, or planning to use, English for their academic work. Ideal for students of any discipline, from engineers or social scientists to business students or lawyers, it covers the key vocabulary they will come across in academic textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars. Authors: Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell.
Level: Designed for students at good intermediate level and above (2.g/3.g of the gymnasium).
academic vocabulary in use
  • 50 Units: such as: Systems compared: the US and the UK; Sources; Talking about ideas; Organizing your writing; Reporting what others say.
  • Presents new words and expressions in real-life academic contexts including extracts from lectures, presentations, essays, tables and graphs.
  • Includes an extra Reading and vocabulary section with longer texts to give you more practice of key vocabulary.
  • Comprehensive Answer Key and an Index with phonetic transcription of key words.
  • Handy Reference section with notes on formal and informal usage, British, Irish and North American vocabulary differences and spelling variations.

How to use abbreviations

When we speak, we often abbreviate words. We also shorten words when we write text messages (SMS). Here's a handy guide to some of the more common abbreviations.


gonna = is / am going to (do something)
"I'm gonna call him now."

wanna = want to
"I wanna speak to you."

gotta = has / have got to (or have got)
"I gotta go!"

innit = isn't it
"It's cold, innit?"

ain't = isn't / haven't / hasn't
"He ain't finished yet."
"I ain't seen him today."

ya = you
"Do ya now what I mean?"

lemme = let me
"Lemme see … tomorrow's a good time."

whadd'ya = what do you …
"Whadd'ya mean, you don't want to watch the game?"

dunno = don't / doesn't know
"I dunno. Whadd'ya think?"

Text messaging abbreviations


2 = to / two
4 = for / four
8 = ate


U = you
C = see
B = be

CU L8r = see you later

msg – message
pls = please
cld = could
gd = good
vgd = very good
abt = about
ths = this
asap = as soon as possible
tks = thanks
txt = text
LOL = lots of love / laugh out loud
x = a kiss!

Improving your English punctuation

It's important to know the rules of English punctuation when you write, as using the wrong punctuation may lead to misunderstandings. Using the correct punctuation is especially important when you are writing to impress, such as when you are applying for a new job, or when you are writing to a customer.

Here is a guide to the rules for using the more common punctuation marks in English.

When to use capital letters :

1. At the beginning of the sentence

It's cold today.

2. For the personal pronoun "I"

I live in a big city.

3. For "proper nouns"

- names and titles: Sarah, Mr Stevens, Doctor Roberts
- places and countries: London, England,
- nationalities and languages: He is French, She speaks Italian
- companies, products and brands: Microsoft, Coca Cola
- institutions: The Ashmolean Museum, The Department of Trade
- religions and religious festivals: Christianity, Ramadan
- abbreviated names: The BBC

4. For books, television and radio programmes, newspapers and magazines

The Simpsons, The Times.

5. Days of the week and months of the year

Wednesday, August 10th.

6. Historical periods or events

The Russian Revolution

7. Rivers, mountains and lakes and geographical regions

The Amazon, The Middle East

8. In addresses

Flat 2, 16 London Road.

When to use commas in English :

1. To separate items in a list

We need coffee, tea, sugar and milk.

British English writers do not normally put a comma before "and", although in American
English, a comma can be used.

"We need coffee, tea, sugar, and milk."

2. To separate clauses which are related in meaning

Do you know the answer, or should I ask Tony?

Where the clauses are short, commas are not used:

"I was tired so I went home."

3. After introductory phrases

Unfortunately, I cannot send you the information.

4. Before and after a word or phrase that interrupts the main clause

Some children,if they are gifted, attend special schools.

5. Before and after non-defining clauses

The factory workers, who were in a meeting, decided to accept the pay offer.
= All the factory workers were in a meeting.

Compare with a defining clause (which restricts the noun).

The factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the pay offer.
= Only the factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the offer: those workers who were not in the meeting didn't decide to accept the offer.

6. To show millions, thousands and hundreds

5, 890, 2811
10, 050

When to use a full stop :

(or "period" in American English)

1. At the end of the sentence

Thank you for your letter.

2. After initials in American English

Mr. G. Hoover. (The British English version is “Mr G Hoover”)

3. As a decimal point

2.5%, $9.99.

When to use a colon :

1. To introduce a list

You will need to bring the following: a waterproof jacket, a change of clothes, a battery-operated torch and some matches.

2. To introduce explanations

There is one thing to remember: the nights can get cold, so bring a warm jacket.

3. To write the time
The 10:40 train to London is late.

4. Between the title and subtitle of a book

Shakespeare: The Complete Works

When to use a semi-colon in English :

Semi-colons show a pause which is longer than a comma, but not as long as a full stop. Short clauses which are related in meaning can be separated by a comma. However, if the clauses are longer, you will probably need a semi-colon:

We'll need to hold some meetings abroad with our suppliers; please could you check your availability in April.

1. To separate long items in a list

Our writing course includes several components: correspondence, including
letters and emails; style and vocabulary choice; punctuation; layout and planning.

2. To give balance to sentences, or to link parallel sentences

We went out for the day; they stayed in.

When to use an apostrophe in English :

1. With an s to show possession

The company's profits.

The 's comes after singular nouns and after irregular plural nouns (those which do not end in s).

The company's staff, the children's shoes.

But the apostrophe follows the swhen the noun is plural and regular.


The boy's school (school of one boy) and the boys' school (school of many boys.)

With nouns which end in y in the singular, but end in ies in the plural (like company) the apostrophe follows the s when it is plural.

The company's profits (profits of one company) and the companies' profits (profits of more than one company.)

With hyphenated nouns, the 's comes at the end of the word.

My brother-in-law's Ferrarì.

2. To show abbreviation

I don't like smoking. (= do not)

3. In time references

In two weeks' time.

Be careful!

1. Apostrophes are not used for possessive pronouns.

Whose is this pen? (Not "Who's this pen" as "who's" = who is.

That pen is hers. (Not "That pen is her's.")

Its also exists as a possessive pronoun:

Its market has grown. (The market of the company).
(Not “It's market” as "it's" = it is or it has.)

2. Apostrophes are not used to make a plural of nouns that end in a vowel.

For example, "two memos" (not "two memo's").

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Dynamic Verbs

Verbs that relate to activity or charge are called dynamic verbs.

Dynamic verbs - durative (continous act)
Verbs such as live, work, rain, stay, talk, sleep, study, sing, teach are durative because they give no indication of their duration/termination. This property becomes most noticeable when the difference between the present perfect simple and continuous is almost neutralised by the aspect of continuity within the verb itself.

1. We have lived here for 10 years
2. We have been living here for 10 years
What is the difference in meaning, if any, between two sentences above?
Typically (with durative verbs) the perfect simple conveys finality or achievement, e.g. in the first sentence the speaker may well be about to move house. It is also often used to focus on the person rather than activity. The perfect continuous, on the other hand, is more often employed for focussing on the duration and the activity itself, and implies future continuity.

Dynamic verbs – punctual (single/repetitive act)
Verbs such as jump, slam, throw, kick, nod, and stab, depict momentary events.
Used in the continuous aspect they indicate repetition,
e.g. Robbie was kicking the ball.
The simple form requires context to convey once-off or repetitive action,
e.g. Robbie kicked the ball to David; Robby kicked the ball around.
Explain the two errors using grammatical terminology and suggesting a reason for student’s writing below.
Also, in Spain I was working 2 years as a tour guide after finish my tourism studies. Later I…
The past continuous has been used erroneously; there is no simultaneous or background event so the past simple is required. The first language would appear to have an imperfect tense, which the student thinks approximates to the past continuous in English. After is a preposition and therefore must be followed by a noun or phrase, or in this case a gerund (-ing form used a noun), finishing. (After could also be a conjunction in a time clause, e.g. after I finished my studies.)

A concise grammar for English Language Teachers (ELT G 0055)
Oxford Practice Grammar (ELT G 0035)
English Grammar in Use (ELT G 0052)

Statics Verbs

When verbs have a stative sense it usually cannot occur in a continuous tense.  

The lists of verbs that have or can have a stative sense are shown below.

1. Mental and emotional states
Believe, doubt, feel (opine), imagine, know, like, love, hate, prefer, realize, remember, see (understand), think (opine), want, wish
2. Senses
Appear, hear, look (seem), see, smell, sound, taste
3. Reactions etc.
(dis)agree, deny, impress, mean, promise, satisfy, surprise
4. Description, possessions, etc.
Be, belong, concern, consist, contain, depend, deserve, fit, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, weigh (have weight)

The examples below show that the verb like is always stative, but think can be used statively or dynamically

1. I am liking you (X)
2. I am thinking you are nice (X)
3. I think you are nice
4. I am thinking about it

The sentence “He is being cold” may or may not be acceptable, why?
In this case it’s really the adjective cold that has a stative or dynamic meaning, linked with be.
If it refers to temperature or sensation then the sentence is unacceptable because with that sense be is also stative and may not be used in the continuous aspect.
If cold means unfriendly, in fact showing unfriendliness through some activity, then be is dynamic and is correctly used in the continuous aspect.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Appropriate use of "An" instead of "A"

In American English, there are several instances where you would use “an” instead of “a” to speak or write correctly. Both “an” and “a” are called indefinite articles because they don't tend to be as specific as other forms of articles like “the.” If you say, “I was talking to a dog,” it’s not quite the same as saying, “ I was talking to the dog.” “I want a sandwich” is equally not as specific as “I want the sandwich you are holding.”
Lots of people are taught the rule that it is important to use “an” instead of “a” when words begin with a vowel. This is not exactly accurate. Some words beginning with a vowel are best proceeded by “a” instead of “an”. Actually the difference lies in how the word sounds, not the letter with which it begins. If the initial sound of the word sounds like a consonant but begins with a vowel, paying attention to that sound can help you decide that words like the following take “an” instead of “a.” Here are some words where it is easy to determine that “an” is the appropriate choice: An apple, an orange, an only child, an Italian, an early start, an eel, an unusual situation.
The vowel sounds produced in the first sound of each word in the above examples are classic vowel sounds, like short A, long O, short I, short E, long E and short U. These words, when they begin with such sounds, will tend to take “an” instead of “a”. Furthermore, words with a silent “h” like “herb” and “heir” often take “an” instead of “a”. In British English, you’ll find a few more words that drop the h sound and take “an” than you will in American English.

There are words that begin with vowels that will take “a” instead of “an”. The long U sound in words like ukulele, usual, useful, actually produces a “y” sound at the beginning comparable to the opening sounds in words like youthful. Though it would seem to make sense to use “an” instead of “a” since these words begin with a vowel, it isn’t just about the letter, but the sound. You would use “a” before ukulele, useful or usual. Furthermore, a few words with an “o” like one and once, make a beginning “W” sound and take an “a.” Examples include: a once in a lifetime opportunity, a useful tool, and a ukulele.

Lastly, you might be using an indefinite article before a number or a letter. Here, be directed by the opening sound of the number or letter. An H, an 8, an O, an A, and an S are correct, as are a 1, a 7, a T, a U, and a 2. Make sure that the opening sound is pure vowel, not a hidden consonant sound, when you plan on using “an” instead of “a”.

What Are Vowels?

A vowel is a type of sound for which there is no closure of the throat or mouth at any point where vocalization occurs. Vowels can be contrasted with consonants, which are sounds for which there are one or more points where air is stopped. In nearly all languages, words must contain at least one vowel. While a word can be formed without any consonants – such as the English words I or way  – no word may consist of only consonants, without a vowel.
Vowels  in many languages are not crucial to the general meaning of the word. Rather, a vowel in these languages – of which many are Semitic languages – acts more to give a specific inflection than to differentiate the word from other distinct words. A parallel of this in English can be seen in the example of dive and dove or lay and lie, in which the core word is the same, but the changed vowel denotes tense. Languages that have this type of structure often do not even mark all of their vowels  in written text. Both Arabic and Hebrew are good examples of this, where the marking of many vowels is unnecessary in writing.
Since a vowel refers to a specific type of sound, orthographically some letters may represent a consonant in some circumstances, and a vowel in others. In English we can see this with the letters y and w which are most often used to make consonant sounds, but can also be used to represent vowels. In the case of y, for example, we can compare its use in the words yonder and day. In the word yonder, it acts distinctly as a consonant, with the center of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – as what is called a palatal approximate. In the word day, on the other hand, it is forming a vowel sound akin to if the word were written in English as dei.

In the case of w, we could look at the words woo and how. In the word woo, the letter is acting as a consonant, with the back of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – what is called a labiovelar approximate. In the word how, it serves as a vowel, which could be represented in English writing as how.

In English, there are five letters which always represent a vowel when written: a, e, i, o, and u. These five letters represent more than five vowel sounds, however, depending on the word, or if they are combined with other vowels. Compare the letter a in the words hat and hate as one of many examples.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Planning English Sentences

Planning English Sentences is an investigation into the problems of generating natural language utterances to satisfy specific goals the speaker has in mind. It is thus an ambitious and significant contribution to research on language generation in artificial intelligence, which has previously concentrated the main on the problem of translation from an internal semantic representation into the target language.
planning English sentences
Dr. Appelt's approach, based on a possible worlds semantics of an intensional logic of knowledge and action, enables him to develop a formal representation of the effects of illocutionary acts and the speaker's beliefs about the hearer's knowledge of the world.

The theory is embodied and illustrated in a computer system, KAMP (Knowledge and Modalities Planner), described in the book. Dr. Appelt's work thus has important applications to the design of interactive computer systems, multi agent planning systems and the planning of knowledge acquisition.


English Words History and Structure 2nd Edition is concerned primarily with the learned vocabulary of English - the words borrowed from the classical languages. It surveys the historical events that define the layers of vocabulary in English, introduces some of the basic principles of linguistic analysis, and is a helpful manual for vocabulary discernment and enrichment.
English words history and structure
The new edition has been updated with a discussion of the most recent trends of blending and shortening associated with texting and other forms of electronic communication and includes a new classification of the types of allomorphy. It discusses important topics such as segment sonority and the historical shifting of long vowels in English, and includes a new section on Grimm's law, explaining some of the more obscure links between Germanic and Latinate cognates. Exercises accompany each chapter and an online workbook contains readings and exercises to strengthen knowledge acquired in the classroom.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

What is English Preposition?

A preposition links nouns,pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples.

She held the book over the table.She read the book during class.
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.

In each of the preceding sentences,a preposition locates the noun "Book" in space or in time.

A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."

English preposition rules

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. 

Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.

Difference Between British and American English

The list below highlights the difference between British English and American English.

Apart from the spelling differences - you can see those by clicking on the USA - UK differences at the left hand side of this page - there are a number of differences in vocabulary listed below.

I suggest you look them over because you never know when you may run into an American after studying British English, or when you may run into a Brit after having studied American English.
British English vs American English
Having been to England a number of times now myself, I can assure you that the differences between American and British vocabulary are just enough to cause a few laughs.

Well, maybe a few... misunderstandings. ;-)

What's important to remember?

That both British English and American English are accepted on the examinations as long as you consistently use either one or the other. In other words, don't mix!

Common Differences
  • English    American English
  • all right    all right, alright (disputed)
  • analyse    analyze
  • centre     center
  • cheque    check
  • colour     color
  • counsellor    counselor
criticise, criticize    criticize
defence    defense
doughnut    donut
favour    favor
fibre    fiber
flavour    flavor
fulfil    fulfill
grey    gray
honour    honor
humour    humor
jewellery    jewellery, jewelry
judgement, judgment    judgment
kerb    curb
labour    labor
license, licence (verb)
licence (noun)    license (verb)
license (noun)
litre    liter
metre    meter
mould    mold
neighbour    neighbor
offence    offense
practise (verb)
practice (noun)    practice (verb)
practice (noun)
pretence    pretense
programme    program
pyjamas    pajamas
realise, realize    realize
savour    savor
speciality    specialty
theatre    theater
travelling    travelled, traveled
travelling, traveling
tyre    tire
valour    valor

Common Mistakes in Spoken and Written English

An exhaustive list of common mistakes,followed by relevant reasons for correction, are given. It served as an analysis of the error most commonly made in spoken and written English. It also presents clear explanations of how to correct these errors. Most of the terminology used here is traditional, so that the task of the student should  not be made more difficult by the introduction of new grammatical terms which would need a lot of explanation. Our explanations are based on British usage.

These notes will be of immense value to the students appearing for the various public examinations including  those conducted by the various universities, Banks, the UPSC and the State Services.In attempting to master standards of usage ,one should begin with the realization that one is engaging in a fascinating study, writes Prof. T.S Berry in his book. “The Most Common Mistakes in English Usage.” In studying canons of usage, one should also recognize, of course, the far-reading utility involved. We must respect principles of usage in order to move effectively in any circle where correct language is a requisite. Finally, it should be realized that rules for usage are necessary to maintain the uniformity of meaning that language has had across the years. Guidelines for usage are usually one of society’s most important safeguards.
We are aware of the fact that a living language like English is always in a state of flux. What is a common error today may not be in the list of errors after a decade. “By the mere law of numbers, errors committed by a bulk of the population are apt to be admitted into elite circles, and into dictionaries in due course”. So, One should be in constant touch with the latest trends in English. Here as attempt has been made to show long established grammatical rules coming under pressure from the current usage of educated speakers of English. The explanatory matter has been made as concise and simple as possible.

For English Grammar, We learners to consult books such as:

1. Current English Usage by F.T.Wood,

2. A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum,

3. A Remedial English Grammar for Foreign Students by F.T. Wood,

4 A Practical English Grammar by Thomson and Martinet,

5.Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, and

6. A Guide to Correct English by L. L. Hill.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Tips for Teachers of English

Here are some tips to help you on your teaching experience.

1. Dress right. Jeans, sneakers, and just-out-of-bed hair may be okay for teachers in the U.S., but in many parts of the world, a neat appearance counts far more than credentials. In Korea dark clothes lend an air of authority. Red is to be avoided at all costs. In Morocco female teachers don’t wear pants, sleeveless blouses, or short skirts.

2. Behave appropriately. When it asked 250 students at the Sichuan Institute of Foreign Languages in China what they liked and disliked about native speaker English teachers, the students’ main gripe was the informality of foreign teachers, who often seem to undermine their own authority by acting in undignified ways. In the U.S. teachers go on a first-name basis with students, sit on their desks, sip coffee, and even bounce off the walls without causing student discomfort or losing prestige. But these behaviors don’t export well.
3. Don’t worry if students seem unresponsive at first. Americans are used to participatory classrooms with plenty of teacher-student dialogue. Elsewhere, students are often trained to be silent, good listeners, and memorizers. It’s disconcerting to stand in front of a sea of blank faces, but expecting it reduces the shock. Introduce new concepts, such as discussion and role-play gradually. You’ll be surprised at how students will come to embrace the change.

4. Choose topics carefully. There are still many countries in the world where people are hesitant to voice opinions because of a fear of reprisal. If you’re conducting a classroom debate, remember that there’s a distaste for Western-style argumentation in Middle-Eastern societies, and in Japan it’s offensive for an individual to urge others to accept his opinion.
Certain topics may be taboo for cultural reasons: Most Americans don’t want to discuss their salaries or religious beliefs; Japanese may be disinclined to talk about their inner feelings; the French think questions about their family life are rude.

5. Don’t ask, “Do you understand?” In China and Japan, students will nod yes, even if they’re totally lost, in an attempt to save face for the teacher. Even in a country as far west as Turkey, yes often means no.

6. Avoid singling students out. Our society fosters a competitive individualism which is clearly manifested in our classrooms. American students are not shy about displaying their knowledge. In classrooms outside the U.S., however, showing solidarity with classmates and conforming to the status quo is often more important than looking good for the teacher. In Turkey and Montenegro students told me they disliked volunteering answers too often because it made them look like show-offs and attracted the evil eye of envy. If you want to play a game, make the competition among groups rather than among individuals. If you need to discipline a student, do so in private.

7. Be aware of cross-cultural communication styles. French students appreciate wit. Venezuelan students like boisterous rapid-fire exchanges. In Japan, where debate is not as valued as in the U.S., students appreciate long pauses in discussions and silent “think time” after you ask a question. “Hollow drums make the most noise” goes a Japanese proverb, and Japanese students are uncomfortable blurting out the first thing that comes to mind. American teachers, who are uncomfortable with silence, tend to anticipate the student’s words or repeat their original question—both irritating interruptions for the Japanese student.

8. Present a rationale for what you do in class. Your pedagogy is going to be very different from what students are used to. They’ll conform much more eagerly to new classroom content and procedures if they understand the benefits.

9. Expect the best of your students. They’ll be serious about learning English because their economic advancement often depends upon mastering it.

10. Relax and enjoy yourself. Happiness in the classroom is contagious.

Thursday, June 10, 2010

The Part Of Speech Defined-Noun,Pronoun,Verb,Adverb,Adjective,Preposition,Conjunction,Interjection.

The English language consists of the parts of speech listed below. Every word you will ever say or write falls into one of these categories (with the exception of the articles “a,” “an,” and “the”). Some words fall into more than one category depending upon their use in a sentence.

Noun–is a word used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun can be a proper noun or a common noun.
George Washington, Charlotte Bronte (people, proper nouns)
man, woman (people, common nouns)
Maplewood Park, Chicago, Illinois (places, proper nouns)
playground, town (places, common nouns)
baseball bat, tennis ball (things)
independence, freedom (ideas)
Pronoun–is a word that replaces a person, place, thing, or idea. Pronouns can act as subjects or objects, and some can show possession.
I, you, he, she, it, we, they (nominative case acts as subject)
me, you, him, her, it, us, them (objective case acts as object)
my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs (possessive case shows possession)

Adjective–is a word used to describe, or modify, a noun or a pronoun. An adjective describes “what kind,” “which one,” “how many,” or “how much.”
the brown dog (Which dog?)
the colonial house (What kind of house?)
the two cars (How many cars?)
She is blonde. (What kind of hair?)
He is tall. (What kind of height?)
Verb–is a word that shows action or that indicates a condition or a state of being.
I run. Polly talks. The boys eat.
I am sick. She is tired. The people are free.

Adverb–is a word used to describe, or modify, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb describes how, when, where, or to what extent the verb performs.
I run fast. (How fast do I run?) The boys are eating now. (When are the boys eating?)
I am very sick. She is extremely tired. The people are finally free. (These examples all show to what extent the verb performs.)

Preposition–is a word used to show a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the sentence. Prepositions often show direction, location, or time.

in the morning, up in the sky, down south, in a minute, at 2:00 p.m., before bed, by my side, without a doubt, over the hill, after school, through the door, across the street, around the world
Conjunction–is a word that connects other words or groups of words to each other. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative.
Steve and Sally are going to the store. (coordinating)
Sally is going to the store because she likes Steve. (subordinating)
Sally likes Steve whether he likes her or not. (correlative)
Interjection–is a word used to express emotion that has no grammatical relationship to other words in the sentence. Interjections should be used sparingly and usually only belong in narrative dialogue.
Uh oh, I made a mistake!
Oh no, I forgot to call Jane!
Well, what are you going to do?

Monday, June 7, 2010

English as a Political tool

In a brief analysis of the "European Question and National Interest" , Professor Jeremy Black makes an interesting comment about 100 year long war between France and England.
In the 1330s, as France and England drifted towards war it became rather awkward for the aristocracy to continue with what we would now call international and francophile outlook and behaviour.
In particular, the question of the language became acute. The use of English as it had developed from mixed Anglo-Saxon and Norman roots became a matter of patriotic political tool.

    “In 1344, it was claimed before the House of Commons, an important and indicative choice of location, that Philip VI of France was ‘fully resolved … to destroy the English language, and to occupy the land of England’. As the lower classes spoke English anyway, it was only a shift by the upper classes that was at issue.”
There is but a short step from that to the first two great literary works in English:ohn Gower’s Confessio Amantis and, above all, Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

The Charm of Non-Perfect English Pronunciation

Many learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) worry about their pronunciation. Surely developing one's pronunciation skill to the point where they are readily understandable is very important. However , many students need not worry about completely completely eliminating their accent.In western countries,especially in multicultural cities like Toronto, accents are largely seen as charming.If you don't believe this, just look at the following list of super successful Hollywood stars with foreign accents.
However Asian people are very capable of learning the intricacies and grammar of a language. However,past the critical stages of lingual learning (1-7 year old, peoples have to cope with not being able to pronounce words in other  languages, especially English,correctly. This is true of nearly all Asians that arrive in the United States after the age of 15,when the human brain begins to lose its plasticity. 
English pronunciation
“What!?” Is this a boring bio lesson on Stuff Asian People Like?!
(Heck no.) Asians have a way with languages. When words come out of asian mouths, they are more refined and articulate. However, this is only true to the eye of the asian. Take Fried Rice for example. Asians are known to say, “Flied Lice.” This holds true only in some asian languages where the L and R are non-present consonant sounds (when they are in the beginning of words). These languages, such as Japanese, usually carry the L or R sound in the middle. In the same category are words like “flo (for)” and “larely (rarely).”
Other asians learn simply by listening. These asians will wind up cursing by saying things like “mother-father” and “thuck you” or “shamit!” 1st Generation Asian parents are the best at mispronunciation because they have probably just heard the new word and want to show their mad skills to their children. Asian children know when their parents have just talked to their salon friends when they are asked about if they want to apply to “Habard (Harvard), Yeild (Yale), Pu-rini-ston (Princeton), or Stamfurt (Stanford).”

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Understanding English Language Contractions

As if English wasn’t complicated enough already, you’ll eventually be faced with the challenge of throwing in contractions. These grammatical devices allow English speakers to combine two words into one, leading to more natural sounding speech and writing. If you aren’t yet comfortable with these words, read on for more tips on popular contractions and when to use them.
The following is a list of some of the most popular contractions used in English speech and writing, as well as the two words that they are intended to combine:

Popular contraction Combined words
  • Isn’t                                     Is not
  • Aren’t                                 Are not
  • Weren’t                              Were not
  • Wasn’t                               Was not
  • They’re                               They are
  • It’s                                      It is
  • That’s                                 That is
  • Can’t                                  Can not
  • Would’ve                           Would have
  • Should’ve                           Should have
  • Wouldn’t                            Would not
  • Shouldn’t                            Should not
  • Didn’t                                 Did not
  • Doesn’t                              Does not
  • He’d/She’d                        He had/She had
  • He’ll/She’ll                         He will/She will
  • How’d                               How did
  • How’ll                               How will
  • I’m                                    I am
  • I’ll                                     I will
  • I’d                                    I would
  • I’m                                   I am
  • Ain’t                                Am not

As you can see from the above table, the two words that form a contraction are always set apart with an apostrophe, and some letters are subtracted from the two words. In all cases, these word combinations are intended to mimic popular speaking patterns. Very rarely will you hear someone say, “I will have a muffin” with each word clearly enunciated. Instead, the speaker will tend to blur some of these words together, leading to the pronunciation “I’ll have a muffin.” Contractions make it easier to speak quickly and to convey a realistic representation of English speech patterns in writing.
English language contractions
Of course, there are a few special details to be aware of when working with contractions. “It’s” is a tricky contraction that’s often confused with the possessive form of the word “it”. Possessive words are typically indicated by adding an apostrophe and the letter “s” to the ending of the word. For example, the phrase “Sarah’s ball” indicates that the ball belongs to Sarah, even though the word “Sarah’s” isn’t a combination of two words. However, when the word “it” is used in a possessive situation – for example, “its bed” – the “apostrophe+s” ending isn’t used. The word “it’s” is only used in instances where it is intended to be a contraction of the phrase “it is”. The contraction “ain’t” presents another interesting situation. Although the term is widely used in some English dialects, it isn’t accepted as proper English by most authorities on the language.
The general school of thought on contractions is that they are an essential part of the English language, although they aren’t always appropriate for things like educational journals or school assignments. English speaking children are currently taught to not use these words in graded projects, including each of the two complete words instead of the contraction. Stemming from this rule, most adults feel it prudent to use the separate words in more formal situations, like job interviews, resumes or professional situations and publications. However, contractions are acceptable for speaking with friends or in personal communications, like email messages.

How to Practise your English Speaking

If you don't live in an English-speaking country, and you don't have friends or family to speak English with, where can you practice your English speaking skills?
It's easier to have a conversation if you have a reason to speak – something to talk about. These ideas all give you a reason to speak with another person.
how to practice English speaking

Start a film or book club
Invite people to discuss a film that you all watch together, or a book that you are all reading. Prepare questions before, to help people talk about specific aspects.

Volunteer to help other people
Does your town or company often welcome foreign guests? Can you offer to translate for them? Or perhaps you can offer to help children or students with their English homework.

Take part in a film conversation
Watch a film on DVD, and decide in which part you can speak with the film character. Listen to what the character says (and the reply) then rewind, and either mute or pause the DVD after the film character speaks. Take the other character's role, and reply to the first character. You can also find film scripts on the imsdb site. Print it out, then practise taking a role in the film.

Use skype
Chat with other people in the penpal forum via skype. You can get to know them first by writing to them, then invite them for a conversation.

Take English lessons
This is the most expensive option, but paying for private or group lessons is a good way to regularly practise your English. If you have a job, maybe your company can also arrange lessons for you.

Before you start speaking
Try to plan what you want to say. Make sure you know the most important words or technical terms that you'll need.

Practice standard expressions. For example, "Pleased to meet you", or "How are you?" Getting these expressions right makes you feel more confident to continue the conversation.

As well as concentrating on what you want to say, also concentrate on listening to the other person. Give your full attention, and make sure you understand by using clarifying expressions such as "Sorry, do you mean…" or "I'm sorry, but I don't understand. Can you repeat thet please?" Don't forget: being a good speaker also means being a good listener. People will want to have conversations with you if they know you're interested in what they say.

Friday, June 4, 2010


    Decide why you want to study English. Keep this in mind when studying gets tough.Regular study is important. Try to study a little and often, 30 minutes a day is better than 3 1/2 hours once a week.Motivate yourself by studying for an exam eg TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication).

      Try watching movies and TV programmes, and listening to the radio, in English. Don't be discouraged if you can't understand everything first time, the more you listen the more you will understand. With movies on video, if you find it difficult, don't try to watch everything at once; watch a little at a time, checking any new words in your dictionary.
      Tape record English radio programmes, listen to them several times.Listen to songs. Follow the lyrics sheet that often comes with a CD. Try to write the lyrics of a song only by listening to it; you'll probably need to listen several times with many pauses. (The lyrics of many songs can be found on the Internet, try starting with a search engine such as Google, Yahoo or AltaVista.)

        Practice introducing yourself in English.
        Prepare a 5 minute presentation on a subject that interests you. Give it to your friends.
        Speak to as many English people as possible; if you see English people in your country, say hello and ask if they need any help.
        Have an "English Only" party with your friends. Have English food, beer and conversation!
        English training basic advice
          Read newspaper and magazine articles that interest you.
          Subscribe to an English newspaper or magazine or read one regularly on the Internet; see the links page.
          When you find new words try to guess their meaning before looking at them in the dictionary.
          Practice reading quickly, without re-reading, to see how much you can understand (this can also help your listening).

          Practice different kinds of reading:
          • Scanning is reading for specific information, eg reading some adverts to find the ones that interest you.
          • Skimming (or reading for gist) is reading to get the main point of a piece of text, e.g you might do this with a newspaper or magazine to decide which articles to read in full.

            Keep a diary. For each day consider the "WH"-questions (what, where, who, when, why, how).
            Write reviews of movies you've seen, restaurants you've eaten at etc. Describe them and say what you liked - and didn't like about them.
            Find some English speaking penpals or email friends to practice real English communication with. Our International Friendship page has lots of links to free penpal sites on the Web.
            Write letters to newspapers and magazines on subjects that interest you.
            Would you like to have your resume, cv, letter, essay, report or other document checked by a graduate native English speaker? right English will check your writing for spelling, grammar, punctuation, clarity and style.

              Read newspaper and magazine articles that interest you. Write down any new or difficult words. Try to guess what you think they mean from how they are used. Check the meanings in a dictionary.
              Try using an English-English dictionary before looking at the translation of new words. Try the Oxford Elementary Learner's Dictionary of English, or Collins COBUILD Advanced Learners English Dictionary.
              Write down and check new words or expressions you hear in movies, songs etc.
              Do crossword puzzles and other word games.
              Set yourself targets for learning new words - eg try to learn 10 new words a week.

                Most native speakers NEVER learn rules of grammar.
                English grammar rules are complex and have many exceptions. It is best to learn grammar by hearing and reading as much natural English as you can.

                Thursday, June 3, 2010

                English Learning Tips

                Learning any new language takes a lot of dedication, practice and time. But all of that pays off when you are able to express yourself in an exciting new way. Learning English has limitless advantages. Job markets increase, grades go up and new friends are made. You will benefit greatly from learning English simply because so many people speak the English language. New horizons and opportunities will expand before your eyes. Use the following tips to help you in your language learning process.

                Have desire –Want to learn a new language. Learning English requires a lot of study and dedication. Only true desire will keep you motivated.

                English learning tips
                Know your motive –Why do you want to learn English? Is it to help you in school, your business or something else? Identify your reason and remember it when you are having a hard time.

                Set goals –Set goals for yourself whether it be learning twenty words a week or giving a presentation in English at work next month. Goals will keep you motivated.

                Study a little each day –Studying formally for at least 30–60 minutes a day will help you retain what you learn. At the beginning of each study session, review what you learned in the lesson before.

                Make a set study schedule –Set aside a specific time for study each day. That way you are less likely to skip your lessons.

                Study out loud –Pronounce the words out loud to yourself as you study. You will remember them more easily and you will be able to practice your pronunciation at the same time.

                Use different learning methods –Language can be learned through different activities such as speaking, reading, writing, and associating pictures with words. Find out which method works best for you and use a variety of other methods for practice.

                Practice speaking –Practice the language you have learned as much as possible.

                Don't be afraid –Never be afraid to try speaking to other people even if you don’t know everything. They will appreciate your efforts.

                Surround Yourself –Surround yourself with English. Read it, listen to it, watch it and speak it with others.

                Listen to native speakers –Pay careful attention to native speakers using English. Observe the way they pronounce the words and how they use them.

                Pronunciation is key –Imitate native English sounds as closely as you can. The more closely you pronounce words like native speakers, the better you will be understood.

                Use good resources –Use dictionaries, workbooks, software and any other resource that will allow you to practice and expand your language.

                Use what you know –Even if you know relatively little English, you should use what you know. You will be surprised at how much you can communicate with a few words or phrases.

                Speed it up –Get used to listening to the language at normal speed. It will seem fast at first, but the more you know, the more it will sound normal.

                Don't get stuck –If you don’t know a certain word, work your way around it. Use different words and actions to explain it, but don’t give up.

                Have fun! –Learning a new language is fun and exciting. Recognize your progress and use your language for ultimate enjoyment.

                Importance Of English Language

                Nowadays everyone knows the importance of English language in today's world, importance of English language in our society and importance of English in daily life.The importance of English language in non spoken countries as well importance of English language in Pakistan increases day by day.As we know importance of English in communication is become very important day by day.As the second language we could never ask for questions why even the kids are already learned with the English language. Since elementary to college, most of the universities worldwide includes English as one of their major subject clearly shows the importance of English language literature.English language has been widely used and considered as the universal language. English is very powerful that it has been used when negotiating with very prominent personalities. With regards to worldwide meeting, the language of English is officially the language being spoken.
                importance of English language
                The language of English is also known as the first language of the countries of Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom as well as the United States of America.Now English language used as the second language Worldwide commonly considered as the universal language.Especially from the Commonwealth countries like India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and South Africa as well as the other international organizations. The modern English is quite described as global lingua France, and it is the major communication tool for science events, business, aviation, entertainment and diplomacy. The British Empire is the main reason that  influences the fast pace spread of English language beyond the British Isles. Since the English Language has been appointed as the universal language, a number of people nowadays had been rushed to some English schools,English Language Institute or English Language centers to learn the latter language; most are those who have been studied from there school where English subject was not included. Even some of the elite personalities chose to learn an English language because some of them planning to venture businesses in other countries, and the English language could be their gear as well as tool when flocking abroad for the business purposes. Without universal language which is English, people until now would find life being empty and less fortunate. Every countries will never experience being progressive and luxurious because without the presence of English dialect things is impossible to happen.So we should consider the importance of English language in daily life.

                Introduction of English Language

                This is small introduction of English or you can say an Introduction of English Essay. English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Lower Saxon dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands in the 5th century. One of these Germanic tribes were the Angles,who may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain,leaving their former land empty. The names ’England’(or ’Aenglaland’) and English are derived from the name of this tribe.
                introduction of English language
                The Anglo Saxons began invading around 449 AD from the regions of Denmark and Jutland,Before the Anglo-Saxons arrived in England the native population spoke Brythonic, a Celtic language.Although the most significant changes in dialect occurred after the Norman invasion of 1066, the language retained its name and the Pre-Norman invasion dialect is now known as Old English.Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Great Britain.One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to Dominate. The Original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of invasion. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family; they conquered and colonized part of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second was the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and Developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. (Over the centuries, this lost the specifically Norman element under the influence of Parisian French and, later, of English, eventually turning into a  distinctive dialect of Anglo-French.). These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic sense of the word mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic communication).Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical supplementation of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupationled to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Italic branch of the European languages. This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. Thus, English Developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary. The emergence and spread of  the British Empire as well as the emergence of the United States as a Superpower helped to spreed English Language  around the world.