Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Proven English Learning Tips Part 2

Reading

Reading is a great way to learn a new vocabulary. Try to read short stories rather than long novels. These are often broken into short chapters that can be read and analyzed for language. Do not think you have to understand every word. Try to get the general sense. Underline unfamiliar words and try to guess their meaning from context. You can use your dictionary to check later and see if you were right. Use ranked players. These issues tend to be designed to test understanding of what you just read.

Use the Internet


The Internet is a fantastic invention that changed the way we live our lives. While it is fantastic to be able to read the People's Daily or chat with friends online, it's a waste if we do not use the environment to learn English. Many English schools offer a full range of mixing applications online training - but, besides that, there is much you can do yourself.

Go to English Corners

Public places such as libraries often tend to have free English corners. Do not be shy. Go beside and take part. Ask questions. Communicate with people like you who are interested in learning English.

Read English Newspapers

There are many newspapers that provide a rich source of reading material interesting and varied. It is a great way to improve your reading.

Chat

You can use Yahoo, MSN, Skype and other chatting Applications to chat in English. Try to find some of your English-speaking friends. If you have Skype, encourage your friends to it too and call them for free use of your computer.

Listen to Radio

Practically all radio station in the world is at stake with the Internet. Do not just settle for the VOA or BBC World Service. There are many other interesting alternatives. Try to listen to radio from around the English speaking world.

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Learn English By Skype

Skype has developed a short time between the start-up of the famous network technology program billions of registered users. VO-IP services are also known as Voice over Internet Protocol offers Skype is a great service for technology development. This service will not only replace traditional phone lines, but also helped entrepreneurs to use business to make money. Voice over Internet Protocol or IP-VO is mostly a talk format on the Internet and mobile phones used in connection with wireless connections.
learn english by skype
Skype is free and you can download it manually via the internet since Skype can be installed on all operating systems including XP, Vista, Linux, Mac, etc. Many companies and individuals are finding ways to make money from this freely available services, international calls for mobile phones to pay a few dollars, but it makes sense to compare prices for mobile calls. Skype to Skype calls are 100% free and can be used in a number of options to generate money online.

Well-known politicians, and also use Skype to make money online with Skype provides an educational tool to learn or improve their knowledge. Millions of Skype users are beginning to teach various subjects of business consultancy to study languages. Let's talk about learning English with Skype many English teacher available for a reasonable price. They learn English online and allows students to fluently and English skills in a short time, you will be very fluent in English, and even a native English speaker.
Learn English through skype
English teaching jobs usually happens to English speaking is very easy to explain in detail the errors in grammar and vocabulary of students. It is not just learning English online, but you can also learn other languages like French, German, Swedish, etc. So far the most popular language to learn English online, there are people all over the world are looking for English speakers who can serve them and let them speak fluent English. Online language programs are not for any company or person they come unique challenges and opportunities.
Learn English Skype online
Anyone will be able to teach English, can not start a program for learning English online, it should be on the computer and the Internet. Training program on the Internet, it should have a broadband Internet connection, your computer will be able to manipulate the instruction.

English Schools in England

England is proud of its education system, particularly because of its world-famous Oxford and Cambridge. We must also recognize this, and with great care as we build the centers for the whole of England. Currently we have a series of English language schools in England.

Schools bath saunas language school in Wels. This school is situated in the city and is very close to the main market. The building is a building from the 18 spacious and very modern facilities like internet and free access to the library is offered to all students in this school in English in England.
english schools in England
English Schools in Bristol this fascinating city, we are in the middle of Bristol Language Centre. Then there is the language of the project is located in Clifton, and reminds us of the history of Britain.

Schools, Cambridge: CE Eurocentres school. Two schools have good English in England. There is another school is located is called Embassy CES.

Schools, Brighton city is not the enthusiasm of young people to learn English. Language school BSC is a recognized expert. Other good schools in England is an English language schools and the Community of Saint-Gilles.
english schools in England UK
Schools in Liverpool: We have a first class school in Liverpool called Liverpool School English LSE. The building is designed to allow any kind of disturbance is visible everywhere, even though it is full of cracks. He is one of the best English schools in England.

Hastings Schools: Here we have created Embassy CES. It is located near the market so that students do not meet any problems. Modes of entertainment are a stone's throw away from the English schools in England.

Schools in London Bloomsbury: St Giles International School is proud of what we bury the flowers to London. It is actually located in a century-old building was completely modernized to meet modern needs. Architecture of this place and fill you with surprise and joy not let you leave without a complete look at it.
English schools in England ielts
In addition to the above locations, we have schools and training centers in central London, Manchester, Newcastle, London Highgate, London, Covent Garden, London Greenwich, London, Wimbledon, Oxford, Torbay, Margate, Portsmouth, Bournemouth, etc. All these English schools England is proud of technology in language teaching and located sites to give you peace of mind. You can focus on their own course and do not know the border from the rest of the world.

Sunday, December 12, 2010

How to Learn English Online

Learning English can be a tricky and intimidating task. Luckily, hi-tech advancements have currently made learning the English language much more simple, fun, and suitable. One hi-tech sophisticated method that has enhanced the method people learns English is the Internet. This up to date form of communication has opened the world to an entire new way of learning the English language. The huge stuffs on the web makes learning English a fewer daunting undertaking.

When an individual embarks on the development of learning English, they need various learning materials such as text books, videos, and audio tapes. Usually, it was tricky to find all of the suitable educational materials. It took a bunch of time to find out the most suitable learning tools. Nowadays, with a simple click of the mouse, individual has a world completed with materials that they have right to use. For example, sites such as Youtube have numerous learn english free videos lessons on learning to speak English.
learn english online
They are so many English language learning sites where you can discover every material required to learn the language. These particular English languages learning sites are developed for those individual who wants to learn the language online easily at own home. These sites offer learning material in such areas as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary, fun learning games, English books, articles, quizzes, magazines to read online, English chat forums that give a place where an individual can talk other learners and practice everyday English, lessons for beginners, as well as a place to share English tales and poetry. In spite of buying plenty of newspaper, books, and magazines and then sort through in sequence that does not interest you, you can discover anything that interests you. The Internet has presently about every medium that uses English. These are English newspapers, journals, magazines, e-books, video, music, radio and online news networks. You can locate just about any topic online. It is a great deal, additional fun to learn English with a topic that is interesting.
learn english online free
There are so many online English learning sites that offer teachers who provide lesson procedure that include tests, live conversation with students, or email correspondence with them. Lessons can be getting any time and any where. All that one need is access to a computer and the Internet. People with busy life, students have the capability to learn at their own tempo. These programs are planned to meet the students' requirements and have top local English speaking teachers.

The Internet also has sites where learners can develop skills of learning such as internet voice communication tools,like learn english online skype  to practice their language speaking ability. People can speak with others sequentially to practice and even make some good friends. It is always helpful to have good support system that will assist motivate you to keep learning. There are also chat boards, chat rooms, and email, where people can practice how to speak and write .English suitable Sites like Facebook and Twitter are a big way to meet and interact with English speakers.

Learning the English language will get better job opportunities and unlock up the doors to career development. Because the Internet has become a huge part of most people's lives, the affluence of information posted from worldwide makes it a precious tool when learning to speak and write the English language.

Best English Learning Tips Part 1

These are some best english learning tips that educate you to turn into a booming English language learner. A number of it sounds idiosyncratic but it does in actuality work. So it’s importance a shot!
free english learning tips

Set Targets

It’s a lot much easier to encourage yourself to work if you have something to seek for. Targets can be short or long term. A short term target in learning English might be to learn sufficient to be capable to book a hotel room. A longer term aim could be to attend a University in an overseas country, or get a 6.5 on the IELTS exam.

Be ready to Work Hard

Learning a language is normally not easy. The majority of people have other stuff to do in their lives to one side from learning English. You need to understand this to be tolerant with regard to your growth. But you won’t accomplish much if you don’t put in the attempt. Your progress depends a lot on you.

Make Time

A lot of of us having busy lives and get it hard to fit new things into an already reputable routine. Learning English can be necessitating discipline. You require setting away time for your learning and being ready to study throughout that time. Putting things off as you’re too tired is OK every now and then, but it shouldn’t turn into a habit. Make English an essential part of your schedule.
best english learning tips

Ask Questions

YOU ARE NOT DAB! You can’t anticipate yourself to understand everything and not have any questions to ask. Don’t be frightened to ask questions to your instructors and/or friends.

Do Some Extra-curricular Work

Having an instructor to teach and guide you is very important. However, you can also study by yourself in fact; this will be more likely to make you a booming language learner. Don’t wait until it’s time for class to pull out your English books.

Watch English Movies

This is a good way to choose up informal English and put into practice listening. You don’t require being able to know every word to understand what is incident in a movie. Concentrate on the English Subtitles to assist with understanding - this is a big way to perform reading also. Prefer movies that you are more likely to be capable to follow. Movies with short dialogue, alienated by long sequences of no dialogue are perfect, as they permit time to understand the language. Passionate movies tend to fall into this category.

Listening English Music

Music can be an entertaining way to learn English. The next occasion you’re at a karaoke bar or maybe at home singing in face of your TV, attempt singing an English song. This is a good way to put into practice some sentiment into your English and will truly develop the way other people recognize your meaning when you’re speaking English to them.

Saturday, November 13, 2010

TOEIC Test

The TOEIC is the test of English for International Communication.It is a very common test among professionals and people in the business world.The test measures the ability of a non-native English speaking person related to everyday workplace conversations and situations.The test helps recruitment / HR department to quickly and efficiently find elite candidates who meet language requirements and helps other employees to establish a good foundation for follow-up training. TOEIC scores are used by 10,000 companies,Government Agencies , and English language programs in 120 Countries.
TOEIC Test
The TOEIC is a useful tool given to managers around the world to test workers on their abilities in the correct use of the English language.It give job seekers and Employees a competitive edge. The test enables universities to better prepare students for the International Workplace.

The TOEIC is a multiple-choice test consists of 200 questions simulate real life situations, organized in two sections: listening and reading.It is the standard place at the workplace and if you plan to work for any important company you will probably have to take this test.The test score report provide accurate,meaning full feedback about test takers strength and weakness along with the description of the English Language Strengths typical of test takers performing at various score level.

The most important thing to do in order to have good results is to practice practice a lot.In this post we would like to share an online sample Listening and Reading test of the TOEIC test. It is a great way to practice and to evaluate yourself.

TOEIC SAMPLE Listening and Reading Test Paper

Oxford Guide To Style

Oxford Guide to style is a completely rewritten edition of Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers, which is currently in its revised thirty-ninth edition.The Oxford Guide to Style has been expanded to encompass modern issues in preparing copy for publication. Hart's Rules is a classic text in printing and publishing houses, and this successor to it is also sure to become a classic. The book consists of 16 topic-based chapters giving advice on how to present the written word. It incorporates the most recent changes in citing electronic media, and details on submission of materials for publication electronically. The text is full of  examples,explanations, and lists on, for example, abbreviations,capitalization and mathematical symbols, and there is exhaustive information for editors on foreign languages and how to demonstrate them on the page. There is also tips on how to use quotations, references and notes, specialist subjects, and indexing.
Oxford guide to style

As well as giving suggestion on the traditional skills needed in the preparation of copy and proofs, there is further information for editors on issues such as copyright laws and legal references. This really is the ultimate guide for all printers magazine,book, and Internet publishers on the preparation and presentation of the written word.

Friday, November 12, 2010

What Is TOEFL Test

TOEFL is the test of English as a Foreign Language.It is designed to evaluate the English proficiency of people whose native language is not English.It is the most widely respected English language test, highly recognized by more than 7,500 colleges, universities and agencies in more than 130 countries.You can take the TOEFL test at your choice of more than 4,500 convenient test places around the world.The Entire test is given in one day without loosing your valuable time and money.TOEFL test basically helps to improve your English for use an academic needs in Classroom.

The test is is offered in two formats:
  • Paper-Based Test (PBT)
The Paper-Based TOEFL (IBT) assesses the language skills in the following areas: Reading Comprehension,Listening Comprehension and Structure and Written Expression.
TOEFL (PBT) scores are valid for two years from the administration date. During this period you can send your test score report to the institutions of your choice.
Paper based version of TOEFL test is offered in those areas where IBT is not yet available.In Nepal both versions are available.
toefl test
  • Internet-Based Test (IBT).
The Internet-Based Test (IBT) assesses four basic language skills:
  • Listening
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking.
TOEFL IBT scores are valid for two years from the administration date. During this period you can send your test score report to the institutions of your choice.
toefl test format
In reading compression of this test you may read a passage from text book and listen to a lecture and then speak or write in response, just like you would in classroom.During TOEFL Speaking test your response recorded and evaluated by three to six ETS raters.

By sending your TOEFL score to selected university you will be proving that you are ready for academic success.For more information on TOELF visit official site.

Friday, October 8, 2010

Learn To Speak English Deluxe 10

Learn to Speak English Deluxe 10 is interactive tutorial.If you are trying to learn English than Learn to Speak English 10 software is an all inclusive language program that uses a wealth of instructional techniques to help you learn English. This English tutorial includes lessons in vocabulary, grammar, and conversation (both verbal and written), and provides plenty of practice, drill and review in each of these areas:
learn to speak english deluxe 10
The Best Way to Learn English is that you must learn to do four things about English Language:
  • Learn English Grammar
  • Learn English Vocabulary
  • Be able to listen to and comprehend the English Language
  • To be understood by others when you Speak English
LEARN TO SPEAK ENGLISH DELUXE 10 FEATURES:
  • 40 Lessons
  • Speech Recognition
  • Games & Crossword Puzzles
  • Audio Course
  • IPOD and MP3 Lessons
  • Printed Reference Book
  • Personalized Lesson Plans
  • Diagnostic Pre test
  • Practice Workshops
  • Advanced Online Courses
  • Online Cultural Resources
  • PDA Dictionary
  • Printable exercises
  • 1 convenient DVD-ROM
  • Bonus MP3 Audio Tour
Learn to Speak English Deluxe 10 includes a workbook of 115 pages for practicing away from the computer.

New Lets Learn English 3

New Lets Learn English 3 by Don Dallas and Linda Pelham published by Longman, takes a communicative and topic based approach to language learning over six levels.
new lets learn english 3
This English learning book combines a clear three-3 step methodology with clear language focus and motivating activities that get students using English confidently. Students learn through a variety of tasks including pair work, projects, games, acting and songs.

English In 20 Minutes A Day

English in 20 minutes a day is a great book for english learning and you can learn English without interrupting your everyday schedule. It is conformed with your individual abilities for independent study in dynamic and stressful days of the week.
english in 20 minutes a day
All you need is the lesson for the day, resource book and audio files to listen to them and learn the material, when and where you want. Just 20 minutes a day.Overall it is a best english learning book.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Writing To Communicate 2:Paragraphs And Essays

Writing to Communicate 2: Paragraphs and essays is a Intermediate Level Book. With a combined process and product approach to academic writing, this Second Edition (formerly title You're in Charge!) helps students progress from the basics of paragraph writing to full-length essays.
writing to communicate 2:paragraphs and essays
The text's new models and exercises are centered around three main themes-milestones, ecology and relations- to help students generate content and build vocabulary for their writing.

Writing in Paragraphs

Writing in Paragraph is a book for students who are just starting out on essay writing. Writing in Paragraphs takes students from sentence formation to paragraph writing through a process approach. It develops students’ paragraph writing skills and encourages them to become independent and creative writers. The back of the Student’s Book contains peer review forms and a grammar reference section.When students begin writing assignments in English, they need to be able to: find ideas for their writing and put them into sentences logically organize their sentences into paragraphs review and revise their paragraphs to make them even stronger.
writing in paragraphs
Some of the strengths of this book:
  • Focus on particular aspects of paragraph writing, such as topics, style, and development.
  • Writing support to help students with brainstorming, organizing ideas, writing topic sentences, and supporting their ideas.
  • Language support to help them with vocabulary, grammar, and punctuation.
  • Guidance on reviewing their own and their classmates’ writing in order to make revisions.
  • Structured writing assignments at the end of each unit .

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Easy English Vocabulary ESL

Easy English Vocabulary ESL improve your English Vocabulary  with hundreds of essential words and Phrases is master all of the words and phrases you need to know to get by in everyday English conversation.
Learn on the go with this audio only course.No reading or writing necessary.
easy english vocabulary
Easy English Vocabulary includes:
  • Eleven lessons on two CDs
  • Useful topics like Computers and the Shopping and Money, and Law and Government
  • Realistic conversations, easy definitions, and lots of examples
  • Three bonus audio lessons online
  • Online glossary with all of the words and definitions
Easy English Vocabulary is a basic/intermediate ESL program for speakers of any language.

Focus On Vocabulary Mastering The Academic Word List

Focus on vocabulary Mastering the academic world list by Diane Schmitt and Norbert Schmitt gives high-intermediate to advanced / gymnasium students the vocabulary skills they need to succeed in academic environments. Through excerpts from college texts and well-crafted exercises, English learners study the Academic Word List -- the most frequently used words in academic texts. Each chapter provides a series of exercises on word meaning and word families. In addition, collocations exercises develop students' ability to form natural partnerships between the target vocabulary and other words.
Level: Gymnasium students planning a course of English-language higher education
focus on vocabulary schmitt
  • 24 words in each chapter are featured first in an authentic academic text, then in exercises to reinforce meaning, usage and collocations.
  • Seven units focus on areas, such as social change, consumer behavior, natural resources, and music.
  • Each chapter recycles the target vocabulary four times in reading passages and exercises.
  • Collocation exercises train how academic words are used in real contexts.
  • Strategy Practice chapters offer tips for  dictionary usage and methods for expanding word knowledge.
  • Expansion sections provide additional reading, discussion, and writing activities.

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Oxford New English File Series

Oxford New English File Series (Complete) is a Interactive tutorial including Audio Books.The English File series is one of the best available and the new Elementary level is and improvement over the original. The student’s book is well laid out, well illustrated and has vocabulary and grammar sections.

100% new lessons that work, that are fun, and get the students talking. An expanded Vocabulary Bank. Includes AUDIO FILES, E-BOOKS, EXERCISES and CD ROM.
oxford new English file series
It takes learners from the verb to be to the present perfect. Perhaps the book tries to cover too much too quickly; the past simple is reached very quickly and slower students would benefit from additional exercises using the present simple. The teacher’s book has also been improved and the workbook includes a useful CD ROM.

A new Grammar Bank section with rules and exercises. Practical English lessons, a focus on functional language supported by the New English File Study Link Videos.

The same unequaled level of teacher support. More photo copyable materials for teachers, with an extra grammar and communicative activity for every lesson.

The are 4 Levels:
  • Elementary
  • Pre-Intermediate
  • Intermediate
  • Upper-Intermediate

How to Write Effective Business English-Essential toolkit for composing powerful letters

How to Write Effective Business English: Essential Toolkit for composing powerful letter in English, teaches the non-native reader how to create clear, concise messages and avoid verbosity. Assuming an intermediate knowledge of English, this book provides guidelines for further development, deals with real life scenarios and gives readers answers that even their bosses might not know.
how to write effective business English
Focusing on emails, letters, resumes or job applications, it gives reader an easy system for writing clearly, quickly and easily. It will also appeal to native English speakers who feel that their written business English needs practice.

Oxford Business English Dictionary For Learners Of English

Oxford Business English Dictionary for learners of English is a new up-to-date Business English dictionary, that gives learners all the help and information they need to do business in English.A dictionary designed for learners who need to understand, speak, read and write English for business.Key features of Oxford English Dictionary: Vocabulary from the main areas of business, including: accounting,banking, computing, finance, import and export, international trade,law, management, sales, shipping and the stock exchange. Clear explanations of over 4,000 business words and phrases that are easy to understand but contain enough detail to make them useful for both students of business and experienced business people.
oxford English dictionary download
Specially designed for quick and easy access. On the left-hand side of every page there are definitions and examples of words or phrases; on the right there is a separate language information column containing abbreviations, pronunciation, collocations (words commonly used with the headword), American variants, and notes on grammar and usage. Over5,000 authentic examples, invaluable in helping learners with the English needed in real business situations. Many are based on the British National Corpus.Comprehensive cross-reference system leading learners to information about related words and helping with vocabulary building.

The Online English Grammar

The Online English Grammar by Anthony Huges is a full PDF version of the Online English Grammar which has a number of advantages over the version that you can find online online for public viewing:
online English grammar help
  • It covers more grammar topics than the online online version
  • You can view it on your desktop as an easy reference guide
  • It is easy to print out pages from this version using any standard Printer
  • You can access regular updates to the Online English Grammar now that you have purchased this copy. All that is required is that you supply your username and password to begin the download. You will receive regular emails when new updates are available. The update subscription is valid for one year from the date you purchased the item from us.

Learning With English Connection

Learning with English Connection is a software that teaches you English by listening and watching. The Connections series is a world leader for English and foreign language learning in both the business and education markets.
learning with English connection
All of the courses cover a wide range of topics providing comprehensive training in the language of business and travel. The language is presented using extensive video footage and sound files, then practiced and tested using a variety of role of role-plays and exercises. This product is highly versatile and is suitable for use as a quick revision aid, for topic-based learning, or as a complete self-study course.Learning with English Connection torrent is also available on internet.

Each course is built in the following steps:
  • Rapid English
  • Grammar
  • How to say and speak (giving advice, order, opinion…)
  • Role Play (Practice)
  • and Comprehension
The CD Number 9 is the famous software “ PRONUNCIATION POWER” I have found it in the same collection.

Focus On Grammar 5 Advanced 3rd Edition

Focus on Grammar 5 advanced 3rd edition, an integrated skills approach includes Book , 2 Supplements, 4 CDs material.It contain Known for its focus on English grammar through contextualized listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities, this lively integrated skills course helps students bridge the gap between comprehending grammatical structures and actually using them.
focus on grammar advanced
Each unit progresses through four steps: Grammar in Context, Grammar Presentation, Focused Practice, and Communication Practice, using a new color-coded format that makes the program easy for students to understand and for teachers to implement.

Academic Writing Course

Academic Writing Course,In the future you must give your students more specific study preparatory skills, not least the ability to acquire material in English in various disciplines: This book deals with all aspects of academic writing, through advice and exercises based on a wide range of material.
academic writing course
Easy to select what you need. Chapters such as: Structure and Cohesion; Narrative; Definitions; Comparison and Contrast, generalization, Qualification and Caution; Interpretation of Data; Discussion; Academic Style. Appendices (eg Basic Framework for a Research Report). Key to Exercises.

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Types of Sentences

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence contains a subject and a main verb; it contains one independent clause.

* I like coffee

This is a simple sentence with one subject and one verb forming an independent clause. Naturally, a simple sentence can include other things:

* I like a couple of cups of coffee first thing in the morning.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses, often joined by a co-ordinator.

* I like coffee, but my partner prefers tea.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

* Because I have trouble waking up, I have coffee first thing in the morning. (The dependent clause is in bold and the independent clause is italicized)

The dependent clause cannot exist on its own; it requires the independent clause to make sense.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

* Some people say that the best coffee comes from Brazil, but others say that the best coffee comes from the Blue Mountains in Jamaica.

Adjectives that look like adverbs

Here is a list of adjectives  that end in -ly and sometimes get mistaken for adverbs:

    * Beastly
    * Brotherly
    * Comely
    * Costly
    * Cowardly
    * Daily (Can also be an adverb)
    * Deadly
    * Elderly
    * Fatherly
    * Fortnightly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Friendly
    * Gentlemanly
    * Gentlewomanly
    * Ghastly
    * Ghostly
    * Godly
    * Goodly
    * Holy
    * Homely
    * Humanly
    * Kingly
    * Leisurely
    * Likely
    * Lively
    * Lonely
    * Lovely
    * Lowly
    * Maidenly
    * Manly
    * Masterly
    * Matronly
    * Miserly
    * Monthly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Motherly
    * Nightly
    * Painterly
    * Priestly
    * Princely
    * Saintly
    * Scholarly
    * Shapely
    * Silly
    * Sisterly
    * Timely
    * Ugly
    * Ungainly
    * Unruly
    * Unsightly
    * Unseemly
    * Unworldly
    * Weekly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Womanly
    * Worldly
    * Yearly (Can also be an adverb)

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Academic Writing From Paragraph To Essay

Academic Writing from Paragraph to Essay course takes students from paragraph structuring to essay writing through a process approach. It teaches learners how to order and link paragraphs into cohesive and coherent essays, and to create the various paragraph types that are used in writing assignments. Academic Writing includes work on how to generate ideas, organize material, draft, review and revise written work.
academic writing from paragraph to essay
There are additional sample and reference materials at the back of the book, including models of essay development and a punctuation guide.

Academic Vocabulary In Use

Academic Vocabulary in Use is a practice and reference Book for anyone using, or planning to use, English for their academic work. Ideal for students of any discipline, from engineers or social scientists to business students or lawyers, it covers the key vocabulary they will come across in academic textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars. Authors: Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell.
Level: Designed for students at good intermediate level and above (2.g/3.g of the gymnasium).
academic vocabulary in use
  • 50 Units: such as: Systems compared: the US and the UK; Sources; Talking about ideas; Organizing your writing; Reporting what others say.
  • Presents new words and expressions in real-life academic contexts including extracts from lectures, presentations, essays, tables and graphs.
  • Includes an extra Reading and vocabulary section with longer texts to give you more practice of key vocabulary.
  • Comprehensive Answer Key and an Index with phonetic transcription of key words.
  • Handy Reference section with notes on formal and informal usage, British, Irish and North American vocabulary differences and spelling variations.

How to use abbreviations

When we speak, we often abbreviate words. We also shorten words when we write text messages (SMS). Here's a handy guide to some of the more common abbreviations.



Speaking

gonna = is / am going to (do something)
"I'm gonna call him now."

wanna = want to
"I wanna speak to you."

gotta = has / have got to (or have got)
"I gotta go!"

innit = isn't it
"It's cold, innit?"

ain't = isn't / haven't / hasn't
"He ain't finished yet."
"I ain't seen him today."

ya = you
"Do ya now what I mean?"

lemme = let me
"Lemme see … tomorrow's a good time."

whadd'ya = what do you …
"Whadd'ya mean, you don't want to watch the game?"

dunno = don't / doesn't know
"I dunno. Whadd'ya think?"

Text messaging abbreviations

Numbers

2 = to / two
4 = for / four
8 = ate

Letters

U = you
C = see
B = be

CU L8r = see you later

msg – message
pls = please
cld = could
gd = good
vgd = very good
abt = about
ths = this
asap = as soon as possible
tks = thanks
txt = text
LOL = lots of love / laugh out loud
x = a kiss!

Improving your English punctuation

It's important to know the rules of English punctuation when you write, as using the wrong punctuation may lead to misunderstandings. Using the correct punctuation is especially important when you are writing to impress, such as when you are applying for a new job, or when you are writing to a customer.


Here is a guide to the rules for using the more common punctuation marks in English.

When to use capital letters :

1. At the beginning of the sentence

It's cold today.

2. For the personal pronoun "I"

I live in a big city.

3. For "proper nouns"

- names and titles: Sarah, Mr Stevens, Doctor Roberts
- places and countries: London, England,
- nationalities and languages: He is French, She speaks Italian
- companies, products and brands: Microsoft, Coca Cola
- institutions: The Ashmolean Museum, The Department of Trade
- religions and religious festivals: Christianity, Ramadan
- abbreviated names: The BBC

4. For books, television and radio programmes, newspapers and magazines

The Simpsons, The Times.

5. Days of the week and months of the year

Wednesday, August 10th.

6. Historical periods or events

The Russian Revolution

7. Rivers, mountains and lakes and geographical regions

The Amazon, The Middle East

8. In addresses

Flat 2, 16 London Road.

When to use commas in English :

1. To separate items in a list

We need coffee, tea, sugar and milk.

British English writers do not normally put a comma before "and", although in American
English, a comma can be used.

"We need coffee, tea, sugar, and milk."

2. To separate clauses which are related in meaning

Do you know the answer, or should I ask Tony?

Where the clauses are short, commas are not used:

"I was tired so I went home."

3. After introductory phrases

Unfortunately, I cannot send you the information.

4. Before and after a word or phrase that interrupts the main clause

Some children,if they are gifted, attend special schools.

5. Before and after non-defining clauses

The factory workers, who were in a meeting, decided to accept the pay offer.
= All the factory workers were in a meeting.

Compare with a defining clause (which restricts the noun).

The factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the pay offer.
= Only the factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the offer: those workers who were not in the meeting didn't decide to accept the offer.

6. To show millions, thousands and hundreds

5, 890, 2811
10, 050

When to use a full stop :

(or "period" in American English)

1. At the end of the sentence

Thank you for your letter.

2. After initials in American English

Mr. G. Hoover. (The British English version is “Mr G Hoover”)

3. As a decimal point

2.5%, $9.99.

When to use a colon :

1. To introduce a list

You will need to bring the following: a waterproof jacket, a change of clothes, a battery-operated torch and some matches.

2. To introduce explanations

There is one thing to remember: the nights can get cold, so bring a warm jacket.

3. To write the time
The 10:40 train to London is late.

4. Between the title and subtitle of a book

Shakespeare: The Complete Works

When to use a semi-colon in English :

Semi-colons show a pause which is longer than a comma, but not as long as a full stop. Short clauses which are related in meaning can be separated by a comma. However, if the clauses are longer, you will probably need a semi-colon:

We'll need to hold some meetings abroad with our suppliers; please could you check your availability in April.

1. To separate long items in a list

Our writing course includes several components: correspondence, including
letters and emails; style and vocabulary choice; punctuation; layout and planning.

2. To give balance to sentences, or to link parallel sentences

We went out for the day; they stayed in.

When to use an apostrophe in English :

1. With an s to show possession

The company's profits.

The 's comes after singular nouns and after irregular plural nouns (those which do not end in s).

The company's staff, the children's shoes.

But the apostrophe follows the swhen the noun is plural and regular.

Compare:

The boy's school (school of one boy) and the boys' school (school of many boys.)

With nouns which end in y in the singular, but end in ies in the plural (like company) the apostrophe follows the s when it is plural.

The company's profits (profits of one company) and the companies' profits (profits of more than one company.)

With hyphenated nouns, the 's comes at the end of the word.

My brother-in-law's Ferrarì.

2. To show abbreviation

I don't like smoking. (= do not)

3. In time references

In two weeks' time.

Be careful!

1. Apostrophes are not used for possessive pronouns.

Whose is this pen? (Not "Who's this pen" as "who's" = who is.

That pen is hers. (Not "That pen is her's.")

Its also exists as a possessive pronoun:

Its market has grown. (The market of the company).
(Not “It's market” as "it's" = it is or it has.)

2. Apostrophes are not used to make a plural of nouns that end in a vowel.

For example, "two memos" (not "two memo's").

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Dynamic Verbs

Verbs that relate to activity or charge are called dynamic verbs.


Dynamic verbs - durative (continous act)
Verbs such as live, work, rain, stay, talk, sleep, study, sing, teach are durative because they give no indication of their duration/termination. This property becomes most noticeable when the difference between the present perfect simple and continuous is almost neutralised by the aspect of continuity within the verb itself.


1. We have lived here for 10 years
2. We have been living here for 10 years
What is the difference in meaning, if any, between two sentences above?
Typically (with durative verbs) the perfect simple conveys finality or achievement, e.g. in the first sentence the speaker may well be about to move house. It is also often used to focus on the person rather than activity. The perfect continuous, on the other hand, is more often employed for focussing on the duration and the activity itself, and implies future continuity.

Dynamic verbs – punctual (single/repetitive act)
Verbs such as jump, slam, throw, kick, nod, and stab, depict momentary events.
Used in the continuous aspect they indicate repetition,
e.g. Robbie was kicking the ball.
The simple form requires context to convey once-off or repetitive action,
e.g. Robbie kicked the ball to David; Robby kicked the ball around.
Explain the two errors using grammatical terminology and suggesting a reason for student’s writing below.
Also, in Spain I was working 2 years as a tour guide after finish my tourism studies. Later I…
The past continuous has been used erroneously; there is no simultaneous or background event so the past simple is required. The first language would appear to have an imperfect tense, which the student thinks approximates to the past continuous in English. After is a preposition and therefore must be followed by a noun or phrase, or in this case a gerund (-ing form used a noun), finishing. (After could also be a conjunction in a time clause, e.g. after I finished my studies.)

References:
A concise grammar for English Language Teachers (ELT G 0055)
Oxford Practice Grammar (ELT G 0035)
English Grammar in Use (ELT G 0052)

Statics Verbs

When verbs have a stative sense it usually cannot occur in a continuous tense.  


The lists of verbs that have or can have a stative sense are shown below.

1. Mental and emotional states
Believe, doubt, feel (opine), imagine, know, like, love, hate, prefer, realize, remember, see (understand), think (opine), want, wish
2. Senses
Appear, hear, look (seem), see, smell, sound, taste
3. Reactions etc.
(dis)agree, deny, impress, mean, promise, satisfy, surprise
4. Description, possessions, etc.
Be, belong, concern, consist, contain, depend, deserve, fit, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, weigh (have weight)


The examples below show that the verb like is always stative, but think can be used statively or dynamically


1. I am liking you (X)
2. I am thinking you are nice (X)
3. I think you are nice
4. I am thinking about it

The sentence “He is being cold” may or may not be acceptable, why?
In this case it’s really the adjective cold that has a stative or dynamic meaning, linked with be.
If it refers to temperature or sensation then the sentence is unacceptable because with that sense be is also stative and may not be used in the continuous aspect.
If cold means unfriendly, in fact showing unfriendliness through some activity, then be is dynamic and is correctly used in the continuous aspect.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Appropriate use of "An" instead of "A"

In American English, there are several instances where you would use “an” instead of “a” to speak or write correctly. Both “an” and “a” are called indefinite articles because they don't tend to be as specific as other forms of articles like “the.” If you say, “I was talking to a dog,” it’s not quite the same as saying, “ I was talking to the dog.” “I want a sandwich” is equally not as specific as “I want the sandwich you are holding.”
Lots of people are taught the rule that it is important to use “an” instead of “a” when words begin with a vowel. This is not exactly accurate. Some words beginning with a vowel are best proceeded by “a” instead of “an”. Actually the difference lies in how the word sounds, not the letter with which it begins. If the initial sound of the word sounds like a consonant but begins with a vowel, paying attention to that sound can help you decide that words like the following take “an” instead of “a.” Here are some words where it is easy to determine that “an” is the appropriate choice: An apple, an orange, an only child, an Italian, an early start, an eel, an unusual situation.
The vowel sounds produced in the first sound of each word in the above examples are classic vowel sounds, like short A, long O, short I, short E, long E and short U. These words, when they begin with such sounds, will tend to take “an” instead of “a”. Furthermore, words with a silent “h” like “herb” and “heir” often take “an” instead of “a”. In British English, you’ll find a few more words that drop the h sound and take “an” than you will in American English.

There are words that begin with vowels that will take “a” instead of “an”. The long U sound in words like ukulele, usual, useful, actually produces a “y” sound at the beginning comparable to the opening sounds in words like youthful. Though it would seem to make sense to use “an” instead of “a” since these words begin with a vowel, it isn’t just about the letter, but the sound. You would use “a” before ukulele, useful or usual. Furthermore, a few words with an “o” like one and once, make a beginning “W” sound and take an “a.” Examples include: a once in a lifetime opportunity, a useful tool, and a ukulele.

Lastly, you might be using an indefinite article before a number or a letter. Here, be directed by the opening sound of the number or letter. An H, an 8, an O, an A, and an S are correct, as are a 1, a 7, a T, a U, and a 2. Make sure that the opening sound is pure vowel, not a hidden consonant sound, when you plan on using “an” instead of “a”.

What Are Vowels?

A vowel is a type of sound for which there is no closure of the throat or mouth at any point where vocalization occurs. Vowels can be contrasted with consonants, which are sounds for which there are one or more points where air is stopped. In nearly all languages, words must contain at least one vowel. While a word can be formed without any consonants – such as the English words I or way  – no word may consist of only consonants, without a vowel.
Vowels  in many languages are not crucial to the general meaning of the word. Rather, a vowel in these languages – of which many are Semitic languages – acts more to give a specific inflection than to differentiate the word from other distinct words. A parallel of this in English can be seen in the example of dive and dove or lay and lie, in which the core word is the same, but the changed vowel denotes tense. Languages that have this type of structure often do not even mark all of their vowels  in written text. Both Arabic and Hebrew are good examples of this, where the marking of many vowels is unnecessary in writing.
Since a vowel refers to a specific type of sound, orthographically some letters may represent a consonant in some circumstances, and a vowel in others. In English we can see this with the letters y and w which are most often used to make consonant sounds, but can also be used to represent vowels. In the case of y, for example, we can compare its use in the words yonder and day. In the word yonder, it acts distinctly as a consonant, with the center of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – as what is called a palatal approximate. In the word day, on the other hand, it is forming a vowel sound akin to if the word were written in English as dei.

In the case of w, we could look at the words woo and how. In the word woo, the letter is acting as a consonant, with the back of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – what is called a labiovelar approximate. In the word how, it serves as a vowel, which could be represented in English writing as how.

In English, there are five letters which always represent a vowel when written: a, e, i, o, and u. These five letters represent more than five vowel sounds, however, depending on the word, or if they are combined with other vowels. Compare the letter a in the words hat and hate as one of many examples.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Planning English Sentences

Planning English Sentences is an investigation into the problems of generating natural language utterances to satisfy specific goals the speaker has in mind. It is thus an ambitious and significant contribution to research on language generation in artificial intelligence, which has previously concentrated the main on the problem of translation from an internal semantic representation into the target language.
planning English sentences
Dr. Appelt's approach, based on a possible worlds semantics of an intensional logic of knowledge and action, enables him to develop a formal representation of the effects of illocutionary acts and the speaker's beliefs about the hearer's knowledge of the world.

The theory is embodied and illustrated in a computer system, KAMP (Knowledge and Modalities Planner), described in the book. Dr. Appelt's work thus has important applications to the design of interactive computer systems, multi agent planning systems and the planning of knowledge acquisition.

ENGLISH WORDS HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

English Words History and Structure 2nd Edition is concerned primarily with the learned vocabulary of English - the words borrowed from the classical languages. It surveys the historical events that define the layers of vocabulary in English, introduces some of the basic principles of linguistic analysis, and is a helpful manual for vocabulary discernment and enrichment.
English words history and structure
The new edition has been updated with a discussion of the most recent trends of blending and shortening associated with texting and other forms of electronic communication and includes a new classification of the types of allomorphy. It discusses important topics such as segment sonority and the historical shifting of long vowels in English, and includes a new section on Grimm's law, explaining some of the more obscure links between Germanic and Latinate cognates. Exercises accompany each chapter and an online workbook contains readings and exercises to strengthen knowledge acquired in the classroom.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

What is English Preposition?

A preposition links nouns,pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples.

She held the book over the table.She read the book during class.
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.

In each of the preceding sentences,a preposition locates the noun "Book" in space or in time.

A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."

English preposition rules


Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. 

Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.

Difference Between British and American English

The list below highlights the difference between British English and American English.

Apart from the spelling differences - you can see those by clicking on the USA - UK differences at the left hand side of this page - there are a number of differences in vocabulary listed below.

I suggest you look them over because you never know when you may run into an American after studying British English, or when you may run into a Brit after having studied American English.
British English vs American English
Having been to England a number of times now myself, I can assure you that the differences between American and British vocabulary are just enough to cause a few laughs.

Well, maybe a few... misunderstandings. ;-)

What's important to remember?

That both British English and American English are accepted on the examinations as long as you consistently use either one or the other. In other words, don't mix!

Common Differences
  • English    American English
  • all right    all right, alright (disputed)
  • analyse    analyze
  • centre     center
  • cheque    check
  • colour     color
  • counsellor    counselor
criticise, criticize    criticize
defence    defense
doughnut    donut
favour    favor
fibre    fiber
flavour    flavor
fulfil    fulfill
grey    gray
honour    honor
humour    humor
jewellery    jewellery, jewelry
judgement, judgment    judgment
kerb    curb
labour    labor
license, licence (verb)
licence (noun)    license (verb)
license (noun)
litre    liter
metre    meter
mould    mold
neighbour    neighbor
offence    offense
practise (verb)
practice (noun)    practice (verb)
practice (noun)
pretence    pretense
programme    program
pyjamas    pajamas
realise, realize    realize
savour    savor
speciality    specialty
theatre    theater
travelled
travelling    travelled, traveled
travelling, traveling
tyre    tire
valour    valor

Common Mistakes in Spoken and Written English

An exhaustive list of common mistakes,followed by relevant reasons for correction, are given. It served as an analysis of the error most commonly made in spoken and written English. It also presents clear explanations of how to correct these errors. Most of the terminology used here is traditional, so that the task of the student should  not be made more difficult by the introduction of new grammatical terms which would need a lot of explanation. Our explanations are based on British usage.

These notes will be of immense value to the students appearing for the various public examinations including  those conducted by the various universities, Banks, the UPSC and the State Services.In attempting to master standards of usage ,one should begin with the realization that one is engaging in a fascinating study, writes Prof. T.S Berry in his book. “The Most Common Mistakes in English Usage.” In studying canons of usage, one should also recognize, of course, the far-reading utility involved. We must respect principles of usage in order to move effectively in any circle where correct language is a requisite. Finally, it should be realized that rules for usage are necessary to maintain the uniformity of meaning that language has had across the years. Guidelines for usage are usually one of society’s most important safeguards.
We are aware of the fact that a living language like English is always in a state of flux. What is a common error today may not be in the list of errors after a decade. “By the mere law of numbers, errors committed by a bulk of the population are apt to be admitted into elite circles, and into dictionaries in due course”. So, One should be in constant touch with the latest trends in English. Here as attempt has been made to show long established grammatical rules coming under pressure from the current usage of educated speakers of English. The explanatory matter has been made as concise and simple as possible.



For English Grammar, We learners to consult books such as:

1. Current English Usage by F.T.Wood,

2. A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum,

3. A Remedial English Grammar for Foreign Students by F.T. Wood,

4 A Practical English Grammar by Thomson and Martinet,

5.Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, and

6. A Guide to Correct English by L. L. Hill.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Tips for Teachers of English

Here are some tips to help you on your teaching experience.

1. Dress right. Jeans, sneakers, and just-out-of-bed hair may be okay for teachers in the U.S., but in many parts of the world, a neat appearance counts far more than credentials. In Korea dark clothes lend an air of authority. Red is to be avoided at all costs. In Morocco female teachers don’t wear pants, sleeveless blouses, or short skirts.

2. Behave appropriately. When it asked 250 students at the Sichuan Institute of Foreign Languages in China what they liked and disliked about native speaker English teachers, the students’ main gripe was the informality of foreign teachers, who often seem to undermine their own authority by acting in undignified ways. In the U.S. teachers go on a first-name basis with students, sit on their desks, sip coffee, and even bounce off the walls without causing student discomfort or losing prestige. But these behaviors don’t export well.
3. Don’t worry if students seem unresponsive at first. Americans are used to participatory classrooms with plenty of teacher-student dialogue. Elsewhere, students are often trained to be silent, good listeners, and memorizers. It’s disconcerting to stand in front of a sea of blank faces, but expecting it reduces the shock. Introduce new concepts, such as discussion and role-play gradually. You’ll be surprised at how students will come to embrace the change.

4. Choose topics carefully. There are still many countries in the world where people are hesitant to voice opinions because of a fear of reprisal. If you’re conducting a classroom debate, remember that there’s a distaste for Western-style argumentation in Middle-Eastern societies, and in Japan it’s offensive for an individual to urge others to accept his opinion.
Certain topics may be taboo for cultural reasons: Most Americans don’t want to discuss their salaries or religious beliefs; Japanese may be disinclined to talk about their inner feelings; the French think questions about their family life are rude.

5. Don’t ask, “Do you understand?” In China and Japan, students will nod yes, even if they’re totally lost, in an attempt to save face for the teacher. Even in a country as far west as Turkey, yes often means no.

6. Avoid singling students out. Our society fosters a competitive individualism which is clearly manifested in our classrooms. American students are not shy about displaying their knowledge. In classrooms outside the U.S., however, showing solidarity with classmates and conforming to the status quo is often more important than looking good for the teacher. In Turkey and Montenegro students told me they disliked volunteering answers too often because it made them look like show-offs and attracted the evil eye of envy. If you want to play a game, make the competition among groups rather than among individuals. If you need to discipline a student, do so in private.

7. Be aware of cross-cultural communication styles. French students appreciate wit. Venezuelan students like boisterous rapid-fire exchanges. In Japan, where debate is not as valued as in the U.S., students appreciate long pauses in discussions and silent “think time” after you ask a question. “Hollow drums make the most noise” goes a Japanese proverb, and Japanese students are uncomfortable blurting out the first thing that comes to mind. American teachers, who are uncomfortable with silence, tend to anticipate the student’s words or repeat their original question—both irritating interruptions for the Japanese student.

8. Present a rationale for what you do in class. Your pedagogy is going to be very different from what students are used to. They’ll conform much more eagerly to new classroom content and procedures if they understand the benefits.

9. Expect the best of your students. They’ll be serious about learning English because their economic advancement often depends upon mastering it.

10. Relax and enjoy yourself. Happiness in the classroom is contagious.

Thursday, June 10, 2010

The Part Of Speech Defined-Noun,Pronoun,Verb,Adverb,Adjective,Preposition,Conjunction,Interjection.

The English language consists of the parts of speech listed below. Every word you will ever say or write falls into one of these categories (with the exception of the articles “a,” “an,” and “the”). Some words fall into more than one category depending upon their use in a sentence.


Noun–is a word used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun can be a proper noun or a common noun.
Examples:
George Washington, Charlotte Bronte (people, proper nouns)
man, woman (people, common nouns)
Maplewood Park, Chicago, Illinois (places, proper nouns)
playground, town (places, common nouns)
baseball bat, tennis ball (things)
independence, freedom (ideas)
Pronoun–is a word that replaces a person, place, thing, or idea. Pronouns can act as subjects or objects, and some can show possession.
Examples:
I, you, he, she, it, we, they (nominative case acts as subject)
me, you, him, her, it, us, them (objective case acts as object)
my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs (possessive case shows possession)

Adjective–is a word used to describe, or modify, a noun or a pronoun. An adjective describes “what kind,” “which one,” “how many,” or “how much.”
Examples:
the brown dog (Which dog?)
the colonial house (What kind of house?)
the two cars (How many cars?)
She is blonde. (What kind of hair?)
He is tall. (What kind of height?)
Verb–is a word that shows action or that indicates a condition or a state of being.
Examples:
I run. Polly talks. The boys eat.
I am sick. She is tired. The people are free.

Adverb–is a word used to describe, or modify, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb describes how, when, where, or to what extent the verb performs.
Examples:
I run fast. (How fast do I run?) The boys are eating now. (When are the boys eating?)
I am very sick. She is extremely tired. The people are finally free. (These examples all show to what extent the verb performs.)

Preposition–is a word used to show a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the sentence. Prepositions often show direction, location, or time.
Examples:

in the morning, up in the sky, down south, in a minute, at 2:00 p.m., before bed, by my side, without a doubt, over the hill, after school, through the door, across the street, around the world
Conjunction–is a word that connects other words or groups of words to each other. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative.
Examples:
Steve and Sally are going to the store. (coordinating)
Sally is going to the store because she likes Steve. (subordinating)
Sally likes Steve whether he likes her or not. (correlative)
Interjection–is a word used to express emotion that has no grammatical relationship to other words in the sentence. Interjections should be used sparingly and usually only belong in narrative dialogue.
Examples:
Uh oh, I made a mistake!
Oh no, I forgot to call Jane!
Well, what are you going to do?

Monday, June 7, 2010

English as a Political tool


In a brief analysis of the "European Question and National Interest" , Professor Jeremy Black makes an interesting comment about 100 year long war between France and England.
In the 1330s, as France and England drifted towards war it became rather awkward for the aristocracy to continue with what we would now call international and francophile outlook and behaviour.
In particular, the question of the language became acute. The use of English as it had developed from mixed Anglo-Saxon and Norman roots became a matter of patriotic political tool.


    “In 1344, it was claimed before the House of Commons, an important and indicative choice of location, that Philip VI of France was ‘fully resolved … to destroy the English language, and to occupy the land of England’. As the lower classes spoke English anyway, it was only a shift by the upper classes that was at issue.”
There is but a short step from that to the first two great literary works in English:ohn Gower’s Confessio Amantis and, above all, Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.